D2.1 Report on Safety by Process Design implementation for the coating processes
One of the objectives of PROTECT is to scale up the production of antibacterial textiles, obtained from the functionalization of fibers with bactericidal nanoparticles, in three pilots: 1) roll-to-roll continuous sonochemical coating; 2) roll-to-roll continuous spray coating; and 3) batch sonochemical functionalization. For each pilot, this deliverable 1) establishes criteria for estimating hazard and exposure for each nanoparticle and for each pilot; 2) defines bands (i.e.,categories) of risk that cover the full range of values given by hazard and exposure; and 3) proposes actions that minimize the risk specific to each band. By dissecting the production of antibacterial textile in each pilot, this deliverable identifies the crucial steps that must be considered in the design of future safe manufacturing. A conclusion common to all the production methods analyzed is that manual handling of chemicals and nanoparticles and open air processes lead to the highest risks for the health of workers: automation of these steps would reduce greatly the risks.
D2.3 Report on the three processes up-scaled for production of antimicrobial/anti-biofilm, and biocompatible products
This deliverable describes the progress towards the scale-up of the three processes developed in Protect: i) the continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) sonochemical coating, ii) the R2R spray coating using ultrasound nozzles, and iii) the batch sonochemical coating. Partner KLO carried out experiments on the existing R2R pilot to define and optimize the parameters required for a homogenous coating that will be further used in the new up-scaled machine. Partner CENTI optimized the spray R2R coating of cotton fabrics with photocatalytic and antimicrobial silica/titanium dioxide nanocomposites. The main parameters related with the spray deposition process were optimized following specific design-of-experiments trials, with two kinds of spray nozzles: pressurized and ultrasonic. Partners UPC and BIU optimized the batch coating processes for medical devices using metal oxide nanoparticles, combination of metaloxides and enzymes, or functional biomolecules.
D2.4 Report on the assembled pre-commercial coating lines at the industrial premises of the partners
This deliverable describes the progress in the construction and assembly of the three pilots developed in Protect: i) the continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) sonochemical machine, ii) the R2R spray coating line using ultrasound nozzles, and iii) the batch sonochemical machine. The building of the machines was done based on the designs developed by partners CTEC, CENTI, KLO, DGA and MAR. Partner CTEC designed and constructed two of the pilots: the batch and the R2R sono-machines, while the spray coating machine was constructed by partner MAR with the assistance of CENTI and a subcontractor. The end users KLO, DGA and MAR prepared the facilities and integrated the new machines in their industrial premises. The automation systems on the batch and R2R sono-machines were developed and installed by ICONE. The machines, constructed by CTEC, after coupling with the automation system of ICONE, were checked for their performance prior the delivery to KLO and DGA. In the current stage, all 3 pilots are installed at the industrial premises of the end users.
D3.1 Report and demonstration of real time monitoring by the PBI of the NPs size, concentration and coating uniformity of the end products
PROTECT is building a versatile platform of three pre-commercial manufacturing lines (Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7) offering antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and biocompatible coating solutions specifically suited to each application area, manufacturer and end user represented in the consortium.
Three existing pilots (TRL 4-5) developed under the FP7 projects SONO and NOVO and with private investment form the basis of PROTECT technological platform.
PROTECT aims to implement methods and/or instrumentation with real time characterisation for measurement, analysis and monitoring at the nanoscale to characterise relevant materials, process properties and product features for ‘real-time nanoscale characterisation’ to ensure ‘reproducibility’ and ‘quality’ of the nano-coated products.
D3.3 Report on the smart metabolic sensing for functional life time monitoring of the end products
This report details the progress in the development of the smart metabolic sensing molecules and their integration in the textiles employed in the PROTECT project. The report is divided into three main section: (i) selection of the sensing probe, (ii) methodologies for implementation in the textiles and (iii) evaluation of smart textile function, i.e. antibacterial capacity and bacterial sensing. In the first selection, electrochromic molecules were chosen for changing color in contact with living bacteria. A number of electrochromic molecules have been tested in solution to evaluate their metabolic sensing capacity and chromatic change. Those presenting most intense colour change in the presence of living bacteria where selected for implementation, i.e. Presto Blue and Prussian Blue. In the implementation in the textile, two strategies have been studied, concretely sonication and cyanotyping, this second only in the case of Prussian Blue. Cotton and cotton-polyester with and without antibacterial nanoparticles have been used. Initial validation assays demonstrated that: (i) all samples presented sensitivity to the presence of live bacteria, although required long incubation times (≥20 hours for bacterial concentrations above 106 CFU/mL) and (ii) the presence of the sensing probe did not influence in the bactericidal capacity of the textiles also incorporating antibacterial nanoparticles.
D4.1 Report on the hazard determinants for the environment safety profile of the new processes and end products
This report is mainly related to the establishment of the most representative exposure scenarios and the potential hazards coming from the nanoparticles (NPs) potentially released into the environment during the production and use of the developed materials. The exposure to NPs eventually released by antibacterial coated textiles and water membranes is estimated to occur mainly via inhalation in workers, while for the end-users of textiles the main exposure route is represented by skin contact. Especially in indoor environments, human exposure to the antibacterial NPs may also occur through inhalation after textile abrasion and wearing. Regarding the water depuration membranes, NPs (or other toxic by-products) may be released after leaching, finally impacting on freshwater living organisms. The methods to characterize the NPs environmental release have been set up, mainly following the OECD documents, reporting the test guidelines to measure NPs in workplaces and in the aquatic environment respectively. The bio-assays to screen the toxicity and the hazard determinants for the several new nanomaterials (NMs)proposed as efficient nano-antibacterials have been also set up. The NMs under scrutiny are sonochemically synthesized metal oxides, hybrids, polymers and colloidal solutions of polymers-metal. Such NMs represent almost completely new formulations and no data are available on their toxicity. For these reasons, different toxicity assays representative of the different exposure scenario has been performed, starting with standard in vitro tests on human lung cell lines, and 3D biological models, like human reconstructed epidermis, to go on with freshwater organisms (e.g. zebrafish embryos).
By the described methods, main determinants that may contribute to the hazard of antibacterial coating materials and technologies toward human and environmental organisms were defined.
D6.1 Report on the LCC and LCA of the three coating processes and recommendation for improvements based on inputs from the existing pilots
The deliverable 6.1 is the report accounting for the work done in the first eighteen months of the PROTECT project. The task is specifically referred to the sustainability issues of the identified process technologies for the PROTECT targeted applications and products. The activities planned in Task 6.1 were primarily concentrated to set-up the sustainability assessment model and the computational framework by specifying: parameters, criteria, scope and goal of the analysis. This is the basis of the PROTECT LCA-LCC studies that are being carried out throughout the whole project development: from RTD pilots scaling-up activities with the consequential LCA, to final the scaled-up pilots assessment with attributional LCA. The first impact studies were carried out and accomplished within the framework of the consequential LCA by analyzing possible processing scale-up scenarios. This provides preliminary indications towards optimization and sustainable development of the final pilot units and processes. Specific focus was given to the roll to roll sonochemical coating and to the spray coating preliminary impact assessments related to the fabric antibacterial treatment for both medical and upholstery applications. First results indicate that the processing speed is a key factor to reduce impacts and the limitation or avoidance-of ethanol would be advisable to further enhance the process sustainability
D7.2 Report on the establishment of the PROTECT PLN including a brochure to detail technologies, services and prices
PROTECT established a Pilot Laboratories Network (PLN) to enable industry end users to select the most appropriate technology for their manufacturing need and target cost vs. performance of their products.
The services to be provided are: test of the coating technologies developed within the project, physico-chemical characterisation of the products, nanosafety tests and training seminars related to the novel in situ monitoring of processes and products based on Push Broom Imaging technology.
The PLN is established by the research partners: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Spain, Bar Ilan University (BIU), Israel, Universita’ Degli Studi Di Milano-Bicocca (UNIMIB), Italy, Centitvc – Centro de Nanotecnologia e Materiais Tecnicos Funcionais e Inteligentes Associacao (CENTI), Portugal, Asociación De Investigación De La Industria Textil (AITEX), Spain, and the know-how and technology transfer provider Kessler ProData GmbH (KES), Germany.
D7.3 Plan for using and disseminating the Know-how
The aim of this report is to present the mid version of the dissemination and exploitation plan of the PROTECT project. It presents the actions that will be taken to disseminate the PROTECT project highlights. Different dissemination avenues are described in relation to the stakeholders to be reached out. Dissemination methods range from the Internet website and social media (Facebook) to journals and conferences. The project website is recognised as a key dissemination medium which brings together all other types of dissemination. Exploitation plan starts with brief explanation of legal boundaries. We propose a set of exploitation tools and identify potential customers of PROTECT solutions.
D7.6 Staff exchange plan between SMEs and R&D centers
Novel technologies as sonochemical continuous technology, spray coating continuous technology and sonochemical batch-mode technology need more skilled employees in the organizations. In this case, staff exchange between SMEs and RTD centers will be organized to facilitate the technology transfer and staff training.
This deliverable establishes linkages and defines the procedures for a successful staff interchange as well as a plan with verifiable activities and timetable oriented to improve the knowledge if the personnel which will participate of the exchange.
D7.13 First business plan for the four business cases
The first Business Plan of PROTECT project includes a detailed business plan for each of the following antibacterial products to be developed within the project: textile for bed linen, water membranes, catheters and upholstery curtains. These products will be the demonstrators of the technologies developed up to pre-commercial level of coating antibacterial nanoparticles. The technologies are : 2D spray coating based on ultrasound nozzles, 3D ultrasound based continuous and batch coating.costing.
D7.14 Second business plan for the four business cases
A Second Business Plan of PROTECT project includes integrations and correction to the previous BP (deliverable 7.13) and reports new Business Models and Financial Plans for the four proposed solutions: textile for bed linen, water membranes, catheters and upholstery curtains. Other scenario have been considered based on different production capacity and matching of functionalization unit capacity with substrate production.
A new business model based on servicing external to consortium partners is considered.
D7.15 Deliverable name: Third business plans for the business cases – the four products
According to the World Health Organization, Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing threat to global health, and for the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As a result of infection with drug-resistant bacteria an estimated 700 000 people die each year worldwide. PROTECT project target is to contribute to the eliminate or at least reduce this serous health threat by developing four different antimicrobial products thank to a innovative an unique coating, realized with three different process: Water Membranes, Urinary Catheters, Hospital Linen and public area upholstery. In this third Business plan challenges, specific market, competitor for the 4 products have been deeply investigated, while financial plan and business model have been updated according to the project development, which allowed to an estimation of cost of the spray coating process, as well as more detailed and optimized estimation for R2R and batch processes
D8.2 Quality Control Plan
In order to assure a high quality of the project management, the following tools are being used:
- A reporting procedure will be applied as described in section 4.
- There will be defined ways of communication within the consortium and with the EC (Section 4).
- Deliverables as mentioned in Annex I of the Contract will be delivered as per the attached format and according to the procedure described in section 4 paragraph 4.3
- Periodical Meetings will be established and carried out according to a defined procedure as described in section 5.
- The Consortium Agreement, signed by all partners, will direct all consortium related issues e.g. the IPR and financial payments. A short summary of the most important issues settled by the Consortium Agreement is in section 6.
The project defined a well-structured managing process described in section 7.