D6.1 Report on the LCC and LCA of the three coating processes and recommendation for improvements based on inputs from the existing pilots
The deliverable 6.1 is the report accounting for the work done in the first eighteen months of the PROTECT project. The task is specifically referred to the sustainability issues of the identified process technologies for the PROTECT targeted applications and products. The activities planned in Task6.1 were primarily concentrated to set-up the sustainability assessment model and the computational framework by specifying: parameters, criteria, scope and goal of the analysis. This is the basis of the PROTECT LCA-LCC studies that are being carried out throughout the whole project development: from RTD pilots scaling-up activities with the consequential LCA, to final the scaled-up pilots assessment with attributional LCA. The first impact studies were carried out and accomplished within the framework of the consequential LCA by analyzing possible processing scale-up scenarios. This provides preliminary indications towards optimization and sustainable development of the final pilot units and processes. Specific focus was given to the roll to roll sonochemical coating and to the spray coating preliminary impact assessments related to the fabric antibacterial treatment for both medical and upholstery applications. First results indicate that the processing speed is a key factor to reduce impacts and the limitation or avoidance-of ethanol would be advisable to further enhance the process sustainability.
D2.3 Report on the three processes up-scaled for production of antimicrobial/anti-biofilm, and biocompatible products
This deliverable describes the progress towards the scale-up of the three processes developed in Protect: i) the continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) sonochemical coating, ii) the R2R spray coating using ultrasound nozzles, and iii) the batch sonochemical coating. Partner KLO carried out experiments on the existing R2R pilot to define and optimize the parameters required for a homogenous coating that will be further used in the new up-scaled machine. Partner CENTI optimized the spray R2R coating of cotton fabrics with photocatalytic and antimicrobial silica/titanium dioxide nanocomposites. The main parameters related with the spray deposition process were optimized following specific design-of-experiments trials, with two kinds of spray nozzles: pressurized and ultrasonic. Partners UPC and BIU optimized the batch coating processes for medical devices using metal oxide nanoparticles, combination of metaloxides and enzymes, or functional biomolecules.
D2.1 Report on Safety by Process Design implementation for the coating processes
One of the objectives of PROTECT is to scale up the production of antibacterial textiles, obtained from the functionalization of fibers with bactericidal nanoparticles, in three pilots: 1) roll-to-roll continuous sonochemical coating; 2) roll-to-roll continuous spray coating; and 3) batch sonochemical functionalization. For each pilot, this deliverable 1) establishes criteria for estimating hazard and exposure for each nanoparticle and for each pilot; 2) defines bands (i.e.,categories) of risk that cover the full range of values given by hazard and exposure; and 3) proposes actions that minimize the risk specific to each band. By dissecting the production of antibacterial textile in each pilot, this deliverable identifies the crucial steps that must be considered in the design of future safe manufacturing. A conclusion common to all the production methods analyzed is that manual handling of chemicals and nanoparticles and open air processes lead to the highest risks for the health of workers: automation of these steps would reduce greatly the risks.